The World Health Organization issued a statement on the aphid virus, stating that it is a rare and zoonotic viral disease, the virus of which is transmitted from animal to human. Ended in 1980, apes still appear sporadically in some parts of Africa and the virus belongs to the genus Poxvirus of the Poxviruses family.
She added that the virus was first discovered in 1985 at the State Institute of Serology in Copenhagen, Denmark, while investigating a disease similar to linear disease in monkeys.
outbreaks of disease
The organization said that the aphid was first discovered in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (known as Zaire at the time) in a 9-year-old boy living in an area where the aphid disappeared in 1968. and in most cases. It has since been reported in rural tropical forest areas located in the Congo Basin and West Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it was thought to be endemic, where a major outbreak occurred in 1996 and 1997.
And she added, in the fall of 2003, confirmed cases of aphids were reported in the north-central region of the United States, indicating that it was the first reported case of the disease outside the African continent, and it was found that most of the patients infected with it had been in contact with prairie domestic dogs. Intimate contact.
In 2005, an outbreak of aphids occurred in Unity State, Sudan, and sporadic cases were reported in other parts of Africa.In 2009, an awareness campaign among refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of Congo identified and confirmed two cases of monkey pox, while 26 cases and two deaths involved in another outbreak of the disease in the Central African Republic between August and October 2016.
The World Health Organization stated that infection with the disease results from indicative cases from direct contact with the blood of infected animals, their body fluids, skin lesions or mucous fluids, and cases of infection caused by the treatment of monkeys, giant mice or squirrels infected with the Disease has been documented in Africa. Rodents are the main reservoir of the virus and it is possible that eating uncooked meat from infected animals may be a risk factor associated with infection.
She said the transmission of the disease at the secondary level or from person to person could result from intimate contact with the secretions of an infected person’s respiratory tract or his skin lesions, or from contact with objects that have recently been contaminated with patient fluids or pest-causing substances.
The organization confirmed that the disease is transmitted mainly through respiratory particles that take the form of spots that usually require long periods of face-to-face contact, which exposes family members from active cases to a significant risk of infection with the disease, and the disease can it is also transmitted through vaccination or through the placenta (congenital apes), noting that there is still no evidence that apes can continue between humans simply by being transmitted from one person to another.
She said recent animal studies of the model of transmission of monkey pox from slaughtered dogs to humans identified two different stages of the virus – the Congo Basin virus and the West African stage, the former being more severe.
Signs and symptoms of the disease
She said the incubation period for monkey pox – which is the period between the stage of infection and the stage of onset of symptoms – varies from 6 to 16 days, but can range from 5 to 21 days.
The stage of infection can be divided into two periods as follows:
• Invasion period (0 days and 5 days), which is characterized by fever, severe headache, swollen lymph nodes, back and muscle pain, severe weakness and loss of energy.
The period of redness (within a period ranging from 1 to 3 days after temperature infection), during which the various stages of redness crystallize, which begins most of the time and then spreads to parts of the face. other of the body. The rash is most severe on the face (in 95% of cases) and on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (75%). In about 10 days, the rash develops from macular papules to “flat-based lesions” to “small fluid-filled blisters” and pustules, followed by crusts which can take up to three weeks to disappear completely.
The number of lesions varies from a few to several thousand, and they affect the oral mucosa (in 70% of cases), the genitals (30%) and the conjunctiva of the eye (20%), as well as that. cornea (eye bulb).
Some patients develop severe swelling of the lymph nodes before the rash appears, a feature that distinguishes monkey line from other similar diseases.
Monkey pox is usually a self-limiting disease and its symptoms last for a period ranging from 14 to 21 days, and severe cases of monkeys are more common in children, depending on the extent of exposure to the virus. the patient’s state of health. and the severity of the complications that come with it.
People living in or near forested areas may have indirect or low levels of exposure to infected animals, potentially resulting in subclinical (asymptomatic) infection.
The mortality rate of cases varies greatly between epidemics, but its rate does not exceed 10% in documented cases, most of which occur in children. In general, young groups appear to be more susceptible to monkey pox.
diagnosis of the disease
Differential diagnoses that need to be considered include other rash diseases, such as smallpox, chickenpox, measles, bacterial dermatitis, scabies, syphilis, and allergies to medications. Lymph node enlargement at the onset of the disease may be a clinical feature that distinguishes it from leprosy.
Monkey pox can be definitively diagnosed only in a laboratory, where virus infection can be diagnosed by a number of different tests below; Enzymatic immunological analysis, antigen detection analysis, polymerase chain reaction analysis, isolation of virus by cell culture.
treatment and vaccine
She stressed that there are no specific drugs or vaccines available to fight monkeypox infection, but its outbreaks can be controlled. It has been proven in the past that smallpox vaccination is 85% effective in preventing monkeypox, but this vaccine is no longer available to the general public as vaccination with it was discontinued due to the eradication of smallpox from the world. The disease takes a milder course.
monkeypox virus infection
In Africa, aphid infection has been shown to be transmitted from many genera of the following animals: striped squirrels, tree squirrels, gambian rats, striped rats, dormitories, and predators. Doubts remain about the natural history of monkey pox virus and more studies are needed to pinpoint its reservoir and how it survives in the wild.
There are those who believe in the United States that the virus was transmitted from African animals to a number of non-African animal species susceptible to the virus (such as prairie dogs) with which they shared a shelter.
Preventing the further spread of aphids by imposing restrictions on animal trade Restricting or banning the transfer of African mammals and small monkeys could effectively slow the spread of the virus outside Africa.
Caged animals should not be vaccinated against smallpox, but potentially infected ones should be immediately isolated from other animals and quarantined.
All animals in contact with other infected animals should also be quarantined and treated according to standard precautions and observed within 30 days for monkey pox symptoms.
Reduce the risk of people becoming infected with this disease
The World Health Organization says close contact with patients during monkey pox outbreaks is one of the most important risk factors associated with infection with the virus that causes the disease and in the absence of a specific treatment or vaccine to combat it, e the only way. to reduce human infection means to raise awareness of the risk factors associated with it and to educate people about the measures they can take to reduce exposure. Surveillance measures and prompt diagnosis of new cases are necessary to curb outbreaks.
Public health education messages should focus on reducing the following two risks; Reducing the risk of transmission from one person to another, as intimate physical contact with people infected with smallpox should be avoided, and gloves and protective equipment should be worn when caring for patients and care should be taken to wash hands regularly after care or while visiting them, in addition to reducing the risk of transmitting the disease.from animals to humans. Efforts to prevent the transmission of the virus to endemic sites should focus on thoroughly cooking all animal products (blood and meat) before eating them, and gloves and other appropriate protective clothing should be worn when treating animals. diseased or their infected tissues and during slaughter practices.
Infection control in health care facilities
The WHO has emphasized the need for healthcare professionals to implement standard infection control precautions when caring for patients with suspected or confirmed monkeypox virus infection, or when handling samples collected from such patients.
Health workers who treat monkeypox patients, or individuals who have been exposed to them, or samples collected from them, should consider getting vaccinated against smallpox from their national health authorities, but that older vaccines against oats should not be given to people with weakened immunity. systems.
Samples collected from humans with suspected monkeypox virus infection and from animals with suspected monkeypox virus should be handled by trained personnel working in properly equipped laboratories.