AMMAN – The National Center for Epidemic Control decided to hold a meeting to discuss the “monkey pox” developments on Sunday with officials from the Ministry of Health, including the Department of Epidemiology and the Directorate of Laboratories, as well as to discuss developments in country and International epidemiological situation, according to the head of the center, Raeda Al-Qutb.
She added that “The plan set by the Ministry of Health for prevention and raising the level of health awareness among health staff and citizens about the disease, the ways of its transmission and the precautionary measures to be followed will be discussed.”
“The response plan will be defined and the agreement will be drafted to formulate a case study definition and to define the mechanism that will be followed to investigate and report the case to confirm the early detection of cases,” according to Al-Qutb. .
The availability of laboratory materials for laboratory diagnostics will also be discussed at the meeting.
The meeting aims to coordinate efforts at the national level regarding health and well-being at an early stage and to define the roles assigned to each entity to follow their implementation.
World Health Organization
According to the World Health Organization website, the monkey pox virus is transmitted to humans by a variety of wildlife, but its spread at the secondary level is limited by transmission from one person to another.
Monkey pox is considered a rare disease that occurs mainly in remote areas of Central and West Africa near tropical rainforests and there is no treatment or vaccine available to fight the disease, although previous vaccination against monkey pox has been widely proven. also effective in preventing monkey pox. according to the organization.
Monkey pox is a rare and zoonotic viral disease (the virus is transmitted from animals to humans) and the symptoms of infection in humans are similar to those seen in the past by smallpox patients, but it is less severe. Although aphids disappeared in 1980, apes still appear sporadically in some parts of Africa. The aphid virus belongs to the genus Poxvirus of the Poxviruses family.
The virus was first discovered in 1985 at the State Sera Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, while investigating a disease similar to that of monkeys.
According to the WHO, monkey pox was first discovered in humans in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (known as Zaire at the time) in a 9-year-old boy living in an area where the pox disappeared in 1968. Most cases Since then have been reported in the regions Rural tropical forests located in the Congo Basin and West Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it was thought to be endemic, where a major outbreak occurred in 1996 and 1997.
In the fall of 2003, confirmed cases of monkey pox were reported in the west-central region of the United States, indicating that it was the first reported case of infection outside the African continent, and it was found that most infected with had had close contact with prairie dogs. .
In 2005, an aphid outbreak occurred in Unity State, Sudan, and sporadic cases were reported in other parts of Africa. In 2009, an awareness campaign among refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of the Congo identified and confirmed two cases of smallpox, while 26 cases and two deaths were involved in another outbreak of the disease in the Central African Republic between mid-August. and October, October 2016.
Infection with the disease results from indicative cases of direct contact with the blood of infected animals, their body fluids, skin lesions or their mucous fluids. In Africa, cases of infection caused by treatment of monkeys, giant Gambian mice or squirrels infected with this disease, given that rodents are the main reservoir of the virus. It is possible that eating unripe meat from infected animals may be a risk factor associated with the disease.
Secondary or person-to-person transmission of the disease may result from intimate contact with the respiratory secretions of an infected person or from his skin lesions, or from contact with objects contaminated with patient fluids or substances that cause pests.
The disease is transmitted mainly through respiratory particles in the form of spots that usually require long periods of face-to-face contact, exposing family members of active cases to a high risk of infection. The disease can also be transmitted through vaccination or through the placenta (congenital apes), and there is still no evidence that apes can be passed on to humans simply by being transmitted from one person to another.
Animal studies examining the pattern of transmission of monkey pox from cuttings to humans identified two different stages of the virus – the Congo Basin virus and the West African virus stage – with the first stage being the most virulent, according to the WHO. -së.
The incubation period for monkey pox (the period between infection and the onset of symptoms) varies from 6 to 16 days, but can range from 5 to 21 days.
The stage of infection can be divided into two periods, the period of invasion (0 days and 5 days), characterized by fever, severe headache, enlarged lymph nodes, back and muscle pain and severe weakness (loss of energy); and redness. period (within 1 day) and 3 days after fever), in which the various stages of the appearance of redness crystallize, which most often begin on the face and then spread to other parts of the body. The rash is most severe on the face (in 95% of cases) and on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (75%).
In about 10 days, the rash develops from macular papules (flat-based lesions) to blisters (small fluid-filled blisters) and pustules, followed by crusts which can take up to three weeks to disappear completely. .
The number of lesions varies from a few to several thousand, and they affect the oral mucosa (in 70% of cases), the genitals (30%) and the conjunctiva of the eye (20%), as well as that. cornea (eye bulb).
Some patients develop severe swelling of the lymph nodes before the rash appears, a feature that distinguishes monkey line from other similar diseases.
Monkey pox is usually a self-limiting disease and symptoms last from 14 to 21 days, and severe cases of monkeys are more common in children, depending on the extent of exposure to the virus, the patient’s state of health, and the severity of the disease. complications. resulting from it.
People living in or near forested areas may have indirect or low levels of exposure to infected animals, potentially resulting in subclinical (asymptomatic) infection.
The mortality rate of cases varies greatly between epidemics, but its rate does not exceed 10% in documented cases, most of which occur in children. In general, young groups appear to be more susceptible to monkey pox.
Differential diagnoses to consider include other rash diseases, such as smallpox, chickenpox, measles, bacterial dermatitis, scabies, syphilis, and allergies to medications. Lymph node enlargement at the onset of the disease may be a clinical feature that distinguishes it from leprosy.