Global Health offers everything you need to know about monkey pox and how it is transmitted

In a new statement, the World Health Organization found that the monkey pox virus is transmitted to humans from a range of wildlife, but its spread at the secondary level is limited through transmission from one person to another..

The World Health Organization said monkey pox is a rare disease that occurs mainly in remote areas of central and western Africa near rainforests characterized by rain.

Q: What vaccines and treatments are available for monkeypox?

There is no treatment or vaccine available to fight the disease, although previous vaccination against smallpox has also been very successful in preventing monkeypox..

Question: How is monkey pox transmitted?

monkey pox In some parts of Africa, the poxvirus virus belongs to the genus Poxviruses of the family Poxviruses..

The virus was first discovered in 1985 at the State Sera Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, while investigating a disease similar to that of monkeys..

Question: What are the outbreaks of the disease and how did it appear?

The monkey pox was first discovered in humans in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (known as Zaire at the time) in a 9-year-old boy who lived in an area where the pox disappeared in 1968 and most of the cases have been reported since then. in the country’s rural areas Tropical forests of the Congo Basin and West Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it was thought to be endemic and where a major outbreak occurred in 1996 and 1997.

In the fall of 2003, confirmed cases of monkey pox were reported in the central western region of the United States, indicating that it was the first reported case of the disease outside the African continent and most of the patients infected with it were found . have had close contact with prairie dogs..

In 2005, a smallpox outbreak occurred in Unity State, Sudan, and sporadic cases were reported in other parts of Africa, and in 2009, an awareness campaign among refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of Congo was identified and confirmed two cases of smallpox, while 26 cases, two deaths, in another outbreak of the disease in the Central African Republic between August and October 2016.

Question: How is the disease transmitted?

Infection with the disease results from indicative cases of direct contact with the blood of infected animals, their body fluids, skin lesions or their mucous fluids. Cases of infection have been documented in Africa as a result of treatment of infected monkeys, mice large. or squirrels, given that rodents are the main reservoir of the virus. It is possible that eating unripe meat from infected animals is a risk factor associated with the disease..

Transmission of the disease at a secondary level or from one person to another may result from intimate contact with the respiratory secretions of an infected person or from his or her skin lesions, or from contact with objects that have recently been contaminated with fluids or substances. patient. cause pests, and the disease is transmitted mainly through respiratory particles taken in the form of droplets usually guarantees long periods of face-to-face contact, placing family members in active cases at high risk of infection. The disease can also be transmitted through vaccination or through the placenta (congenital monkey pox), and there is still no evidence that monkey pox can continue among human beings simply by being transmitted from one person to another..

Recent studies in animals in the framework of the study of the model of transmission of monkey pox from cut dogs to humans identified two different stages of the virus, namely the Congo Basin virus stage and the West African stage, with the first stage on heavy.

Question: What are the signs and symptoms of the disease?

The incubation period for monkey pox (the period between infection and symptoms) varies from 6 to 16 days, but can range from 5 to 21 days..

The stage of infection can be divided into two periods as follows:

Invasion period (0 days and 5 days), which is characterized by fever, severe headache, swollen lymph nodes, back and muscle pain and severe weakness (loss of energy).

The period of redness (within 1 to 3 days after the temperature) in which the various stages of redness appear, starting more often on the face and then spreading to other parts of the body. The rash appears more severely on the face (in 95% of cases) and on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (75%), and in about 10 days the rash develops from macular papules (flat-based lesions) to vesicles (small blisters). filled with fluid) and pustules needed 3 weeks to disappear completely.

The number of lesions varies from a few to several thousand, and they affect the oral mucosa (in 70% of cases), the genitals (30%) and the conjunctiva of the eye (20%), as well as that. cornea (eye bulb)..

Some patients develop severe swelling of the lymph nodes before the rash appears, a feature that distinguishes monkey line from other similar diseases..

Monkey pox is usually a self-limiting disease and its symptoms last for a period ranging from 14 to 21 days, and children are more often infected with severe cases, depending on the extent of exposure to the virus, the condition the health of the patient and the severity of the complications that come from it..

People living in or near forested areas may have indirect or low levels of exposure to infected animals, potentially resulting in subclinical (asymptomatic) infection..

The mortality rate of cases varies greatly between epidemics, but does not exceed 10% in documented cases, which occur mainly in children, and generally younger groups appear to be more susceptible to monkey pox infection..

Question: How can the disease be diagnosed?

Differential diagnoses to consider include other rash diseases, such as smallpox, chickenpox, measles, bacterial dermatitis, scabies, syphilis, and allergies to medications. Monkey pox can be definitively diagnosed only in the laboratory, where virus infection can be diagnosed by a number of different tests below:

enzyme immunotherapy

antigen detection test

polymerase chain reaction analysis

Isolation of the virus by cell culture

Q: What is the treatment or vaccine for aphids?

There are no specific medications or vaccines available to fight monkeypox infection, but outbreaks can be controlled. In the past, vaccination against monkey pox was 85% effective in preventing monkey pox, but this vaccine is no longer available to the general public after vaccination. with it was stopped.After the disappearance of smallpox from the world. However, previous vaccination against smallpox is likely to lead to a milder course of the disease..

Q: What are the animals through which the virus spreads?

In Africa, aphid infection has been shown to be transmitted from many genera of the following animals: striped squirrels, tree squirrels, gambian rats, striped and sleeping rats, and there are still doubts about the natural history of smallpox virus. monkeys and more studies are needed to determine its exact reservoir and how it survives in the wild. Who believes in the United States that the virus was transmitted from African animals to a number of non-African animal species susceptible to the virus (such as wild dogs) with which they shared a shelter.

Question: How can the disease be prevented?

Preventing further spread of aphids by imposing restrictions on animal trade Restricting or banning transfers of African mammals and small monkeys can effectively slow the spread of the virus outside Africa and caged animals should not be vaccinated against oak; instead, potentially infected animals should be isolated from other animals and quarantined immediately, and all potentially infected animals should be quarantined and treated according to standard precautions and monitored within 30 days, so that to identify the symptoms of monkey pox infection.

Question: How can the risk of people being affected by this disease be reduced?

Close contact with patients during monkey pox outbreaks is one of the most important risk factors for infection with the virus that causes the disease and in the absence of a specific treatment or vaccine to combat it, the only way to reduce human infection is raising awareness of related risk factors and educating people about measures What they can take to reduce exposure, surveillance measures and rapid diagnosis of new cases are essential to curb outbreaks, and education messages public health should focus on reducing the following two risks:

1. Reducing the risk of transmitting the infection from one person to another.

Intimate physical contact with persons infected with aphids should be avoided, gloves and protective equipment should be worn when caring for patients, and care should be taken to wash hands regularly after their care or visit..

2. Reducing the risk of transmitting diseases from animals to humans.

Efforts to prevent the transmission of the virus to endemic sites should focus on thoroughly cooking all animal products (such as meat) before eating them, and gloves and other appropriate protective clothing should be worn when treating animals. diseased or their infected tissues and during slaughter practices..

How can infection be controlled in health care institutions?

Standard infection control precautions should be applied by health care professionals when caring for patients with suspected or confirmed monkeypox virus infection, or when treating specimens collected from such patients, as well as health care workers and those involved. in the treatment of monkeypox patients or individuals who have or are exposed to them should consider For samples collected from them, they may have a smallpox vaccine from their national health authorities, provided that older vaccines smallpox should not be given to people with weakened immune systems..

Samples collected from humans with suspected monkeypox virus infection and from animals with suspected monkeypox virus should be handled by trained personnel working in properly equipped laboratories..

What is the WHO response?

WHO provides support to member states to carry out surveillance, preparedness and response activities in the affected countries..

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