Throughout Islamic history, several esoteric religious sects emerged that used violence to expand their influence and eliminate those who violated it, including the “Khanaquun” or “Mansuriyah”, who are followers of Abu Mansur al-Ajli. who appeared in Umayyad. era and claimed his prophethood and defended one of his religious doctrines.
Al-Batiniyya is a general title under which many sects fall, all of which converge in the interpretation of visible religious texts, proving their esoteric meanings and addressing symbols and signs in the interpretation of these texts and their removal. from their apparent meanings.
Imam, prophet and interpretation
Abdullah Salloum al-Samarrai mentions in his book “Exaggeration and Precious Differences in Islamic Civilization” that al-Mansurijeh are the followers of Abu Mansour al-Ajli, who initially said that the imam after Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Ali al-Bakir is Abu Mansuri. al-Ajli, and that Muhammad bin Ali recommended Abu Mansur only without Bani Hashem. And when Al-Bakr learned of this invitation from Abu Mansur, he rejected it and expelled him, and after Al-Bakr died in 117 AH, Abu Mansur said that the Imam was transferred to him and he claimed to have done so.
Abu Mansur did not stop at the borders of the Imamate, but instead ascended and claimed prophethood and used interpretation as a means to explain this claim. He said that this is what is meant by the saying of God Almighty: “And if they see an eclipse. falling from heaven “, and that he ascended to heaven, and that the Almighty God wiped his head with his hand and said to him:” My son, go and tell me. ” Then he lowered it to the ground, because it is the eclipse that fell from the sky, according to the interpretation of Abu Mansur.
Abu Mansur did not claim prophethood only for himself, but made it continuous, claiming that the messengers never cease, and the message never ends, and thus contradicts the fact that the message of the Prophet Muhammad is the end of the messages.
And Ahmad Muhammad Ahmad Jali mentions in his book “A Study of the Difference in the History of Muslims: The Kharijites and the Shiites”, that Abu Mansour Al-Ijli was influenced by Christianity, so he claimed that Jesus was the first that was created. by God, then after him Ali bin Abi Talib, as he claimed that God’s messengers never rest. And he showed his disbelief in Paradise and Hell, and claimed that Paradise is a man who commanded people to follow him and be loyal to him and he is the Imam of the time, and that Hell is a man who commanded people to be hostile. with him and he is the opponent of the Imam.
Abu Mansur first made all the prohibitions on the names of men whom God commanded to be enmity with them, and the statutes on the names of men he commanded their allegiance, and then allowed it for women and the mahrams, and allowed it for the companions of his. , and he claimed that dead meat, blood, pork, gambling and other forbidden things are permissible, and thus ends with the recognition of the imam renouncing him and his sins being removed, as he removed all obligations like prayer , zakat, pilgrimage and fasting, and said that they are the names of men whom God has commanded their guardianship, according to what Jali mentioned.
According to al-Samarrai, in his above-mentioned book, this group interpreted a Qur’anic verse to justify the interpretation of their exaggeration and their strange contradiction, which is the saying of the Almighty: “Those who believe and do good deeds do not have no guilt in what they do. they ate. ” Their extremism did not stop at this point, but they turned to the community and worked on it, disrupting and sabotaging it.
Student of Al-Mughira bin Seid
Muhammad Jaber Abdel-Aal mentions in his book “The movements of extremist Shiites and their influence on the social and literary life of Iraqi cities during the first Abbasid era”, that Abu Mansour Al-Ajli is a natural extension of Al’s ideas -Mughirah bin Said, who was killed and crucified with his companions in 119 AH at the hands of Khalid Al-Qasri, the governor of Iraq, and is considered by orientalists to be the professor of exaggeration and their teacher, as he defended the views of a strange mixture of ancient eastern religions, so he claimed Imamate after the death of Muhammad bin Ali bin Al Husayn, then he claimed prophethood, and his followers played Ali bin Abi Talib.
As soon as he was killed, his disciple Abu Mansuri became famous and many of the Bani Kinda tribe followed him to Kufa, and he was the first Arab to lead a mystical movement himself, which was led by al-Mawli. , who secretly managed it with those who trusted him.
Although Abu Mansur was a leader, he did not form a belief in himself as others did from these extremist leaders, describing their Lord and creating a belief that suits their inclinations, and they cite his elements from the religion. or previously known beliefs. their conversion to Islam, and this is what Fakhreddin al-Razi has said in his book. The beliefs of Muslim sects and polytheists. ” He mentioned in the authority of Al-Mensurijeh that they were in the statement of Al-Mugiriyah and added things, including that Jesus is the first of creation and that the message is not interrupted and that the prophets appear in all ages and times, so that to justify for himself the claim of prophethood.
strangles opponents and offenders
Abdel-Aal believes that Abu Mansour was a dangerous leader and his movement is considered a movement of exaggeration in terms of belief, namely from a mental theory, to a practical theory, because he invented the method of assassination for his companions. to force their opponents to surrender or submit to them.
Abu Mansur invented this method of terrorizing the community and forced his companions to strangle their opponents and kill them in secret while they were prostrating, sleeping or walking by themselves, explaining to them that the elimination of transgressors is one of the rituals of their religion. In his book Fark al-Shi’a, Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Newbakhti mentioned that Abu Mansuri “was ordering his companions to kill those who opposed them and to kill them with murder, and he said that “Anyone who disagrees with you is a polytheistic unbeliever, so kill him, for this is a secret jihad.”
From this it becomes clear that the assassination for them is a religious jihad, which they are obliged to do against the violent unbelievers who are Muslims and this idea aroused terror and panic in the hearts of the people.
In his book “Animal”, Amr bin Bahr bin Mahboub, known as Al-Jahiz, memorized a photograph of their activities. He said: “The crocodiles appear to each other, so they are alone in the village together, and they do not travel except together, except on an access road, and behind them their turn is either the desert, the orchard, or the dump. and similar, and in every house are tied dogs, tambourines and drums, and they still put a teacher at their doors., a book from among them. The people of every house used tambourines and cymbals, like the women of the villages, and encouraged dogs.
According to Abdel-Aal, if these wrongdoers could not kill people by suffocation, they would kill them by sucking them out, which is “anesthesia” and then killing them, or by throwing stones, and they will to take their money and give it to him. their lord, who became exceedingly rich from what was brought to him. Those who are capable of killing by strangulation and strangulation call it “collective,” i.e., one who is capable of drowning and drowning.
And the tricks of the murderers in killing people are numerous, some of them were stoned, and among them was a group that killed only with sticks, and among them were those who killed by throwing a rope that caught it the victim in the neck and pulled. and they threw him to the ground and then killed them, and some of them were killed by sniffing and then killing, and other means that help them to kill their opponents of the faith.
Abd al-Aal says what helped the traitors against their immorality and inability to pay attention was that the issue was troubled at the end of the Umayyad dynasty and the central government was preoccupied with eliminating the freedmen to rob them. sultan. Time was far from the rule of law, protected by the brutality of the sword.
As soon as Yusuf bin Omar Al-Thakafi, the governor of Iraq (120-126 AH) during the time of Umayyad Caliph Hisham bin Abdul-Malik (723-743 AH), rose to their command and saw them go out with Abu Mansur in Beni Kinda, while confronting them, arrested and killed Abu Mansur and crucified him.
But this was not surprising in the assassination of the traitors, as the teachings of Abu Mansur retained their authority in their souls, so they appointed Husayn bin Abi Mansur as imam in place of his father. Al-Newbakhti says: “He prophesied and claimed the rank of his father, and the money (which was seized from his assassin) was raised for him, and many people followed him according to his opinion and doctrine, and they said about his prophethood.
Huseiniya and Muhamedije
However, al-Samarrai, in his above-mentioned book, mentions that after the assassination of Abu Mansur, al-Mansuriya was divided into two sects; Huseiniya and Muhamedije. Al-Husayniyyah said that the imam after Abu Mansur had his son Al-Husain bin Abi Mansur and they gave him one-fifth of what fell into their hands of drowning, and Muhammadiyah said that the imam after Abu Mansur is Muhammad bin Abdullah . pure soul, because Abu Mansur said that I am a warehouse and it is not for me to put it in someone else.
However, al-Mansurije remained in their position until the caliph Abbasid al-Mahdi (158) -169 AH / 747-785AD) sent his forces, and he killed al-Husayn ibn Abi al-Mansur and crucified him after accepting that, and took large sums of money from him and demanded of his companions a strong demand, and won a group of them, killing them and crucifying them. appeared to them, then mingled with others and saturated with the beliefs of others, according to Abdel Aal.