The future of forests and oceans in a changing world

Several scientific journals published in early May offered far-sighted visions of the transformations that natural systems will undergo under the influence of climate change. National Geographic chose forest protection and their future as the theme for its cover and “Discover” discussed the experiences learned from the fires in Australia. The concern of science was with the future of life in the oceans, while Scientific American addressed the issue of sustainability on marine fish farms.

– “National Geographic”

National Geographic dedicates the new issue to the protection of forests and their future. In an article entitled “The Future of Forests,” the magazine showed that the Earth lost a third of its forests in 10,000 years, and it is impressive that half of that loss was since 1900, and globally, deforestation has dropped from the peak its in the eighties of the twentieth century, while trends vary by region. In Indonesia, which has cut down forests for oil palm plantations, the loss of virgin forests has decreased since 2016. Between mid-2020 and mid-2021, the Brazilian Amazon lost 13,000 square kilometers of rainforest, an increase of 22 percent compared to the previous one. vit.

– “The young scientist”

Under the heading “Are dogs invasive animals?” New Scientist provided examples of the horrible tariffs that stray and pet dogs charge in the wild. One study puts the number of dogs in the world at one billion, making them the most common carnivorous animal on Earth. At a time when nature is under unprecedented pressure, there is growing evidence that dogs kill, eat, terrorize and compete with other animals, pollute waterways, over-fertilize land and endanger plants. For example, stray dogs and stray dogs in the highlands of Ecuador cause cougars, bears, foxes, and skunk to become extinct rather than lose their natural habitat.

– “Science”

Science introduces new research findings on the future of life in the oceans. Relying on computer models that take into account the acceleration of ocean warming and the reduction of oxygen in them, marine species are heading towards a mass extinction comparable to the worst extinction experienced by the planet 250 million years ago. Research expects the loss of life in the oceans to be between 50 and 70 percent by the end of the twenty-third century, if greenhouse gas emissions continue without serious measures to reduce them. Research predicts that many tropical species will migrate to live at higher latitudes as the oceans warm, a process that has already begun on land and in the oceans now.

– “American Science”

Scientific American has addressed the issue of sustainability in marine fish farming. The magazine presented the Maine experience with recycled aquaculture systems (RAS) used to propagate filamentous fish, such as salmon and jellies, in large mesh pens in the ocean. The fish in these systems consume scientifically designed foods and medicines against infections, and the current in which they swim is artificially generated and immersed in light for up to 24 hours to accelerate growth. Scientists fear that this intensive fish farming could damage fragile ecosystems to meet growing food demand. Intensive fish farming is associated with a number of problems, such as biodiversity reduction, habitat loss, overuse of antibiotics, animal welfare violations, etc.

– “American Scientist”

American Scientist has chosen the causes of the appearance of pathogens as the title for the cover of the new issue. Plague and cholera have killed millions of people over the past centuries, and the origins of these two diseases are harmless microorganisms that have evolved into among the worst epidemics that have affected mankind. Scientists study this process, known as the emergence of the pathogen, to understand the biological basis and evolutionary forces that infect microorganisms, with the aim of managing and controlling disease. These factors include man-made environmental concerns, such as climate change and pollution of natural systems, which greatly affect the spread of pathogenic bacteria, accelerate the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, and increase the potential for the emergence of new pathogens.

– “Zbulo”

Discover discusses lessons learned from fires in Australia. Over the past year, the country was exposed to about 15,000 scattered fires, affecting 190,000 square kilometers of land and killing about 3 billion animals, according to conservative estimates. The commission investigating these fires completed a number of recommendations, including the need for standard training of forest fire workers, improving weather forecasting, developing updated forest fire forecasting models, and educating citizens to better understand the system. of fire warning. , and updating the national classification system to include a category New giant fires fueled by extreme weather conditions.

– «Scientific News»

The future of food, and how experiments with what we eat and how we grow it help us cope with climate change was the cover story in Science News. The world currently depends on just 13 cultures for 80 percent of people’s calories, and half of those calories come from wheat, corn and rice alone. To meet the growing demand for food, scientists suggest diversifying the food basket to combat global warming. They also call for investment in all possible solutions, such as planting crops that are resistant to climate change, looking for genetically modified foods, and introducing neglected crops of which we do not know much.

– “Illustrated Science”

The contribution of massive offshore wind turbines to the greenery of Australia has been the subject of an Illustrated Science cover. Australia recently made changes to its legislation to allow offshore wind farm licensing and at the same time, a Danish company developed the world’s largest wind turbine capable of generating power for 10,000 homes. Some countries already have offshore wind turbine farms, with the largest capacity in the UK, which is home to about 34 percent of all offshore wind turbines in the world, followed by Germany (28 percent) and China (20 percent). , while Australia has not pumped to date any investment in this area.


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