Cloud pollination Maximizing water harvest

T + T – normal size

The downpour represented a sustainable, healthy and safe solution to the country’s climate challenges through the Emirates Weather Factory, which produces 1,000 salt flares per month or the equivalent of 12,000 per year. Cloud planting operations have been able to increase rainfall by 20%, achieving an increase in annual rainfall Support of water situation, achievement of sustainability, increase of groundwater reserves, increase of quantities and rates of surface runoff in valleys and continued access to water under natural and abnormal conditions. .

The country is a world leader in its commitment to providing appropriate solutions to the challenges associated with water conservation and management and achieving water security, despite being considered one of the driest and poorest countries in the world, where the average rainfall does not exceed 100 millimeters per year and ranks second globally in the field of water desalination, as it produces 14% of the world’s desalinated water, which requires about ten times more energy than the production of fresh surface water.

a program

Dr. Abdullah Al-Mandoos, Director General of the National Meteorological Center and President of the Asian Meteorological Union, said the Emirates Rainfall Science Program has succeeded over the past two decades in attracting a large number of scientists and experts who enriched program with new and innovative studies and research in the field of cloud planting Research project by Professor Linda Zhou, which received a grant in the first cycle, the study of which aimed to improve the effectiveness of cloud planting techniques in increasing rainfall by engineering the nano- properties of the pollination materials to accelerate and prolong the process of condensation of water vapor inside the clouds and to realize the process of attraction between small points of the clouds. an outer layer of nano-sized titanium dioxide and a patent was obtained for these materials after they proved their effectiveness in increasing precipitation during numerical modeling studies and laboratory experiments. Techniques and procedures for producing these materials at a reasonable cost to meet the quantities required for use in aerial cloud planting operations.

Dr. Al-Mandoos added that the UAE established in 2018 the first domestic environmentally friendly factory called “Emirates Weather Improvement Factory”. It is the first in the region to produce “salt burners” containing potassium chloride and sodium chloride for rain planting operations, and is currently producing two types of burners used in cloud planting operations, with a production capacity of about 1000 fuel per month, or the equivalent of 12,000 flames per year.

Dr. Abdullah Al-Mandoos confirmed that the factory has implemented several models of special packages designed in a unique way to carry the innovative nanomaterials of Dr.’s project. Linda Zou, and the contents of these packages of nanomaterials are distributed inside the clouds. without compromising their physical or chemical properties. These materials are in their ability to start the condensation process early and at low relative humidity levels compared to other materials, as care has been taken to design these packages in a way that does not allow these materials to coagulate inside due to their high sensitivity to moisture and work on these packages was carried out in collaboration with the Research and Development Department affiliated to the National Meteorological Center, to be distributed using the center’s aircraft for planting clouds.

It is worth noting that nano-precipitation materials activate condensation processes and collect small droplets of water inside the clouds, so the number of large droplets is three times that of ordinary materials, according to what has been proven by laboratory experiments and cloud simulation. room, in addition to preliminary studies conducted in the skies of the United Arab Emirates and the state of Texas in America, which showed the promising results we look forward to.

Previously, several field tests were performed on packages at the designated location within the Emirates Weather Improvement Plant before loading them into the National Meteorological Center research aircraft to find the most efficient models suitable for them. .

procedures

For his part, Omar Al Yazidi, Director of the Weather Research and Improvement Department at the National Meteorological Center, pointed out that although the UAE Rain Growth Science Research Program aims to increase rainfall and increase water supply fresh within the country, he seeks to at the same time to achieve results that can be applied more widely.In other countries, especially in areas suffering from water shortages, which gave the opportunity to take advantage of this scientific progress in the science and technology of rain planting that has reached the UAE.

Al Yazidi explained that the planting process is performed as part of a series of precise procedures performed by experts from the National Meteorological Center and the complete process of burning the salt torch takes about 4 minutes, then the process of interaction of these salts with the ingredients different cloud starts through chemical and physical processes, the results of which appear within 15 Approximately one minute from the start of the pollination process, depending on the concentration of water droplets inside the clouds per cubic meter, like these hygroscopic materials. begin to collect water droplets to become large in size and weight so heavy that air can not carry them to fall in the form of rain.

The cloud sowing process relies on the use of an advanced airborne radar network that monitors the country atmosphere around the clock, through which the onset of cloud formation is monitored, which is the basic step in the pollination process after the sowing process is completed. burning the salt torches loaded on the wings of the aircraft, which deal with salt burners burning under the cloud and transporting the materials dispersed by the flames through vertical currents to reach target areas within the clouds to activate the condensation process; and to collect the falling clouds to complete the process of collision and cohesion between them to increase the size and weight of the points, then fall in the form of rain.

Today, the National Meteorological Center owns a sophisticated surface monitoring network of 91 stations spread throughout the country and covering different regions with different climatic nature, as it works to monitor all weather factors, including the amount of shiut. temperatures, speed and direction of wind and humidity and other indicators that contribute to their reading and analysis.In the preparation of integrated weather forecasts for weather conditions in the country. Due to the importance of monitoring and tracking the rainfall that falls in the country, the weather monitoring network of the center has been strengthened by adding a specialized network for rain monitoring, number 17, in order to improve studies related to rain distribution, in addition to the presence of 7. meteorological stations operating manually at the country’s airports.

The center uses a number of aircraft equipped with the latest technologies through which cloud planting is performed and cloud planting search is performed. The center also exchanges information with international and regional organizations to learn about the latest research developments related to cloud planting.

According to the National Center for Meteorology and Seismology, current rainfall operations have been able to increase rainfall by 20%.

Projects awarded by the program grant contributed to the development of new technologies in this field, including the use of nanomaterials, drones, the design of a cloud simulation chamber, a jet engine system to create the necessary upstream currents for cloud formation, and others. innovative technologies.

The UAE Rain Growth Science Research Program seeks to consolidate the UAE leadership position as a global hub in the field of water safety and rainfall improvement by promoting innovation, research cooperation and international partnerships, and working in finding innovative and advanced solutions in this field. of rain science to contribute to ensuring global water security based on advanced research. The program also seeks to play a key role in the implementation of the UAE Water Security Strategy 2036, which aims to ensure the sustainability and continuity of water access during normal and extreme emergency conditions.

rain drop steps

The artificial planting steps begin with monitoring cumulus clouds that can be pollinated in the country sky through ground-based radars, multiple maps, and data collection devices that determine their properties and water content. With devices similar to firecrackers, planes then penetrate the clouds and drop their projectiles from those vehicles toward cumulus clouds that carry large amounts of steam, and sometimes if cumulus clouds have rising currents, they launch their missiles under the clouds. and the winds carry these materials and spread them. in all parts of the cloud, then the Wind disperses these salt compositions in most parts of the cloud and takes the place of dust particles, where the ice crystals condense and as the temperatures decrease, the rain begins to fall.

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