Today in the Gregorian calendar passes the birthday of our lord Muhammad as, as he was born on April 22, 571 AD, in Mecca, that is how Mecca was before the birth of the Prophet and before. the advent of Islam.
In this we rely on a research entitled “History of the Arabs before Islam” published by Al-Mustansiriya University in Iraq, and the research talks about everything related to Mecca, including:
The origin of the name Mecca and its interpretation
There have been many opinions and interpretations about the origin of the name Mecca, and it has been said that it is so named (because of the gathering of people there from their saying: Your mother’s breast has killed you if you suck hard). it, the whistling of the macaques around the Ka’bah, and they whistled and applauded if they were in it, and the mecca with the emphasis of al-Kaf is a bird that shelters Riyadh, and the others said it was called Mecca because it is between two high mountains.
The location of Mecca was on the route of the trade caravans between Yemen and the Levant, in the flow of oriental products through the Arabian Gulf and Yemen, and the products of Egypt and the Levant through the Levant. Negotiating with neighboring Arab countries places to get guarantees to secure their trade, so the Quraysh managed to conclude trade treaties with the Romans and Persians, and they also concluded treaties similar to the Arab princes on the island and the Ghasanid kings in the Levant and Manathira in Iraq. Among the merchants who were foreign to the Quraysh, he was known as the Ten. A number of Roman merchants settled in Mecca and took it as a home for them. Persian merchants flocked to it and joined its wealthy, and some of them settled in Mecca in exchange for paying a tribute to protect and preserve his money and trade, and the Levantine merchants brought to Mecca the products of the country. of them. From wheat, oils, wines, and factories, as well as gold, precious stones, ivory, sandalwood, spices, silk, cotton, linen, purple, saffron, and silver textiles were brought to it by southern traders from India. They also carried East African and Yemeni products, including perfumes, spices, blackwood, ostrich feathers, incense, myrrh, precious stones, leather and pearls, and Bahraini sapphires.
Residents of Mecca:
Arab sources mention that the oldest rulers of Mecca and Hijaz are the giants, then the tribe of Jurhum al-Qahtaniyah succeeded them. The Almighty ordered Ibrahim to call the people on Hajj, and Khuza’ah traveled to Mecca after the flood, so they descended on her face, but Jurhum refused to allow them to dwell in Mecca, so war broke out between they for the three days that ended with the loss of Jurhum Khuzaah took over the affairs of the House and the first of them who was in charge of the House was Umar bin Lahi, who changed the religion of Ibrahim and introduced idolatry. their arrival the next day of the sacrifice at Mina, then the bellies of Kinana and Mudar branched out entirely, and they became separate quarters and houses, and at that time they resided on the outskirts of Mecca, as far as Qusay bin Kilab bin . Murra succeeded in snatching Khuza’ah from the sovereignty and administration of Mecca, and the credit belongs to Qusay at the gathering of the Quraysh and his division into b. Ton, he distinguished between the Quraysh of Al-Batah and the Quraysh of phenomena, and the Quraysh of Al-Batah are the bellies that inhabited Mecca itself and in the hands of its people were the administration and the main affairs, including the merchants. and the wealthy, who are the tribes of Abd Manaf, Bani Abd al-Dar, Bani Abdul-Uzza Ibn Kusay and Zahra, Makhzoum and Jem ibn Murrah, Juma and Sahem, and Uday and the sons of Atik bin Amer bin Loay.
As for the prominent Quraysh, they are the bellies that inhabited the outskirts of Makkah, including Banu Muharib, al-Harith ibn Fihr, Banu al-Ardam ibn Galib ibn Fihr and Banu Husayn ibn Amer ibn Play around Makkah.
The system of government in Mecca:
The gathering of people and their settlement in Mecca was a factor in weakening the manifestations of the tribal bloc and the adaptation of the people to the new society, and the sanctification of the Arabs for the Kaaba was a reason for the Quraysh interest in organizing pilgrimage to it. , and this resulted in the emergence of political systems and religious functions that were specific to their nobles, which are:
Like the Senate, it consisted of people whose talents and abilities qualified them to lead people in adversity.
Kusay bin Kilab was the first to fall to the king in Mecca from the sons of Ka’b bin La’i. When things were good for him and the people obeyed him, Dar al-Nedwa was built, near the Kaaba on the north side, so became a community of mullahs from the Quraysh and was more like a shura council or a government house run by the mullahs of the Quraysh.