It is from God’s mercy on people that He associated His laws with their ability to do so, and He knew that the human condition is not righteous in nature, which suits Him and is one of the signs of mercy. of Islam. the law of man, therefore, is also known in our jurisprudence: the health of bodies takes precedence over the health of religions, that is: the preservation of human health first, then the conditions for the validity of worship come after it, because God. did not ask us to worship Him with that which harms us, or destroys us.
Sickness has some rules in our sharia, especially with fasting, God has made the disease permissible for breaking the fast, so what is the disease with which breaking the fast is allowed? Does every patient break the fast? Or is there any disease that leads to the death of man, and then breaks the fast? And who decides for this patient to break the fast or to fast?
The Holy Qur’an states that it is permissible to break the fast for the sick by saying: (So any of you is ill or on a journey, then a number of other days) Al-Baqarah: 184. As he distinguished in his talk about illness , which is an unfounded distinction according to the texts of the Shari’ah, the Holy Qur’an made it clear that illness itself is a permission to break the fast.
Disease that allows the fungus:
As for the disease that allows the fasting person to break the fast in Ramadan, the views of the jurists in it were different, due to their culture and information about the disease, so it is useful from their conception and jurisprudence, but within the framework. from the comprehensive texts to which he refers in this matter, therefore we will find a great difference between them in the type of illness that is permissible for the fasting person.Breaking the fast with him, some of them determined that it is a serious illness. illness and find the disease in it a great difficulty that prevents it from fasting, as evidenced by the saying of God Almighty talking about the permissions of fasting: (God wants ease for you and does not want trouble for you) Al-Baqarah: 185 . and Sheikh Rashid Rida responded to this by saying that the verse speaks of the explanation of the license and is not evidence in the license.
But the criterion that is said a lot about the type of disease, is that: the disease that causes pain to the patient, or that fasting causes the disease to increase, or delays healing, and is a very disciplined criterion, and whether the disease is large or with what people are taught, the important thing here is to do the Healing of the sick, even if this healing conflicts with fasting, then priority is given to treating the patient for fasting and it is done later.
Within this criterion, we do not need the details of the diseases that people often ask, such as: diabetes, heart disease, kidney and other diseases, because there are many diseases and the fatwa will eventually be based. on the criterion, not just the disease.All that is in the patient’s interest here is the important criterion which the jurist invokes in his fatwa.
Because some have argued that it must be a serious illness, and there are illnesses in which the patient needs light foods to receive treatment with them, and the period between them is not long, it may be two or three times a day, and some diseases need to drink water, and some diseases need to be taken The medicine is every eight hours, or every six hours, and this means that it will not be cured if the medicine is not taken at these regular times, regardless by the type of his disease. here And the drug acts on his body.
There are diseases in which the patient needs medication once a day or twice and does not interfere with his fasting and fasting can be beneficial in them. Fasting is an ibadah performed in Ramadan, but he can justify it. compensate later.
As for the person whose condition is one of the chronic diseases, such as some diseases of old age, and some diseases that affect a person and continue with him until his death, then even here it depends on what is related to health and patient healing. , but here is a persistent disease, so if the sick person breaks the fast he should not make up for it, rather he should feed for every poor person the value of a meal a day, according to his finances. aptitude, for the saying of the Almighty: (And for those who are able, the reward of food for the poor) Al-Baqarah: 184.
Who decides to break the patient’s fast in Ramadan?
Here’s a question asked by the patient who wants to break the fast, or who thinks about breaking the fast, in fact, deciding whether the patient breaks the fast is a difficult issue for the fasting person, especially those who fast every year. His decision to take permission to cut and gather together during the journey is much easier than his decision to break the fast in Ramadan due to illness, as well as for travel, and I do not know where the people with this strictness, except on the basis of habit, habit and fear of the social situation.
As for the answer to the question, our jurists have decided that he who judges the sick to break the fast here, has two sides: as to the first side, it is by an expert doctor on the patient and his condition. , and the state of his illness, then decides on the basis of what to break the fast.
As for the second aspect, the patient decides for himself, because he knows his condition and ability, and that his fast harms, delays healing or causes other symptoms besides the disease, then gives the fatwa to himself, because he is . most familiar to people with his body, and some may want to prevent a person from issuing fatwas about himself in illness, on the pretext that he may be lenient and he is not accepted by those who oppose him, for he who breaks the fast in Ramadan due to illness, is compensated after that, i.e.. he will fast after that, therefore he has not been deprived of the obligation of fasting at all, but he has taken leave in one case, and he will be compensated later, he is inevitably fasting, sooner or later.
And some people, unfortunately, want to judge people on their illness, based on their experience, and that they got sick with the same disease and saw it normal and without difficulty in it. This is what life and nature rule by denial because people are not equal in endurance, energy and ability.
There are bodies that if you eat ten meals a day would not be overworked and there are people who if you eat a little will increase their weight significantly, the bodies in their composition and nature are different, hence the decision. on the people is a clear mistake, which the mufti and the people must bear in mind.